First Aid & The Rules of its Provision

DATE: February 8, 2019

AUTHOR: Leslie Marshall

1. It is necessary to take measures to stop the effects of damaging factors (remove the drowning person from the water, put out burning clothes, remove the injured person from the burning room or from the contamination zone with toxic substances, turn off the electric current, etc.). It should be remembered that the provision of assistance is associated with a certain risk. In contact with the blood and other secretions of the victim in some cases possible infection with infectious diseases (syphilis, AIDS, infectious hepatitis), electric shock, drowning while rescuing a drowning person, as well as other injuries. This in no way exempts from civil and moral responsibility to provide medical assistance to victims, but requires knowledge and compliance with safety measures.

Security measures:

  • If necessary, contact with blood and other secretions must wear rubber gloves, in their absence, wrap the hand with cellophic new package;
  • When removing a drowning person from water, it is necessary to swim to it from behind and with extreme caution. It is better to remove a person with a stick, belt, rope, or other object
  • In case of fire, it is necessary to take measures to prevent poisoning by combustion products, for which an emergency to remove or remove the victim from the danger zone
  • When rendering assistance in a car accident, the victim is carried out from the carriageway and designates the accident site as an emergency stop sign or clearly visible signs.

2. It is important to be able to quickly and correctly assess the condition of the victim. On examination, it is first established whether it is alive or dead, then the severity of the lesion is determined, whether there is bleeding. In many cases, the affected person loses consciousness. The provider should be able to distinguish loss of consciousness from death.

Signs of life:

  • To do this, the index and middle fingers are applied to the recess on the neck in front of the upper edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which stands out well on the neck
  • The presence of spontaneous breathing. It is mounted on the movement of the chest, on the moistening of the mirror, applied to the mouth and nose of the victim
  • If the victim’s open eye is shielded with a hand and then quickly taken to the side, then a pupil is narrowed.

3. When signs of life are found, it is necessary to immediately begin to provide first aid. It is necessary to identify, eliminate or reduce the life-threatening manifestations of the lesion – bleeding, respiratory and cardiac arrest, impaired airway patency, severe pain. It should be remembered that the lack of a heartbeat, pulse, respiration and the reaction of pupils to light does not mean that the victim is dead.

Signs of death:

  • Clouding and drying of the cornea
  • When squeezing the eyes from the sides with the fingers, the pupil narrows and resembles a cat’s eye
  • Cadaverous spots and rigor mortis.

4 . Simultaneously with the provision of first aid, it is necessary to take measures to call an ambulance or transport the injured to a hospital. The ambulance call should not suspend the provision of first aid.

Reanimation of the victim. Resuscitation (revitalization) is the restoration of vital body functions, primarily respiration and blood circulation. Resuscitation is carried out in the absence of respiration and cardiac activity, or they are so depressed that they do not provide the minimum needs of the body.

The possibility of recovery is based on the fact that death never occurs immediately, it is always preceded by a transitional stage – a terminal state. .

The agony is characterized by darkened consciousness, a sharp disturbance of cardiac activity and a drop in blood pressure, respiratory distress, and lack of pulse. The skin of the affected person is cold, pale or bluish. After the agony, clinical death occurs, in which there are no major signs of life – breathing and heartbeat. It lasts 3 – 5 minutes. This time must be used for resuscitation.

A few minutes separating the state of clinical death from biological death do not leave time for conversations, vanity, reflections and expectations. Since a medical worker may not always be on the scene, every person should know the basic techniques of resuscitation and be able to use them correctly.

Procedure for resuscitation of the victim:

  • You must ensure that there is a pulse in the carotid artery and respiration.
  • If there is a pulse, and breathing is absent, immediately proceed to the artificial ventilation of the lungs.

First provide restoration of the airway. To do this, the victim is placed on his back, check and clean the oral cavity from foreign bodies. If the airways are free, but breathing is absent, proceed to artificial ventilation of the lungs using the “mouth-to-mouth” or “mouth-to-nose” method

Artificial ventilation of the lungs using the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose method (artificial respiration):

  • Holding the victim’s head thrown back and taking a deep breath, blow exhaled air into his mouth, while pinching the victim’s nose with his fingers to prevent air from escaping. When conducting artificial ventilation of the lungs using the “mouth-to-nose” method, air is blown into the victim’s nose, closing his mouth. It is more hygienic to do this through a moistened napkin or a piece of bandage
  • After blowing air, it is necessary to pull away; exhalation occurs passively
  • Air injection rate 12-18 times per minute The effectiveness of mechanical ventilation can be assessed by raising the chest of the victim when filling his lungs blown air.

The lack of a pulse in the carotid artery is evidence of cardiac and respiratory arrest and requires urgent cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Recovery of the heart. In order to restore the work of the heart, in many cases it may be sufficient to carry out a precordial stroke. To this end, the palm of one hand is placed on the lower third of the sternum and a short and sharp punch of the other hand is applied to it. Then re-check the presence of a pulse in the carotid artery and, in its absence, proceed to an external cardiac massage and mechanical ventilation.

External heart massage:

  • The victim is placed on a hard surface
  • They put both their palms on the lower third of the sternum and, with energetic pushes, press on the chest wall, using their own body weight. The chest wall, shifting to the spine by 4-5 cm, squeezes the heart and pushes blood out of its chambers along the natural channel
  • Heart massage is performed with a frequency of 60 presses per minute. In children up to 10 years old, massage is performed with one hand with a frequency of 80 presses per 1 minute
  • Efficiency is determined by the appearance of the pulse on the carotid arteries in time with pressure on the chest
  • After every 15 presses, the aid blows air into the affected person’s mouth twice and starts heart massage again
  • If resuscitation is carried out by two people, one performs a heart massage, the other – artificial respiration in the mode of one blowing air through 5 presses on the chest wall
  • It is periodically checked whether an independent .Pulse has appeared on the carotid arteries. The effectiveness of resuscitation is also judged by the narrowing of the pupil, the appearance of a reaction to light. In the presence or restoration of respiration and cardiac activity, the victim, who is unconscious or comatose, must be laid on his side (safe position), in which the victim does not suffocate with his own sunken tongue, and in the case of vomiting
  • The arm should be in front, and the leg bent at the knee joint to prevent the victim from turning on the stomach. This is extremely important for the prevention of asphyxiation (suffocation) as a result of the fall of the tongue and the entry of foreign bodies into the airways. The fall of the tongue is often indicated by breathing, reminiscent of snoring, and sharply obstructed inhalation.


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