DATE: February 8, 2019
AUTHOR: Leslie Marshall
1. It is necessary to take measures to stop the effects of damaging factors (remove the drowning person from the water, put out burning clothes, remove the injured person from the burning room or from the contamination zone with toxic substances, turn off the electric current, etc.). It should be remembered that the provision of assistance is associated with a certain risk. In contact with the blood and other secretions of the victim in some cases possible infection with infectious diseases (syphilis, AIDS, infectious hepatitis), electric shock, drowning while rescuing a drowning person, as well as other injuries. This in no way exempts from civil and moral responsibility to provide medical assistance to victims, but requires knowledge and compliance with safety measures.
2. It is important to be able to quickly and correctly assess the condition of the victim. On examination, it is first established whether it is alive or dead, then the severity of the lesion is determined, whether there is bleeding. In many cases, the affected person loses consciousness. The provider should be able to distinguish loss of consciousness from death.
Signs of life:
3. When signs of life are found, it is necessary to immediately begin to provide first aid. It is necessary to identify, eliminate or reduce the life-threatening manifestations of the lesion – bleeding, respiratory and cardiac arrest, impaired airway patency, severe pain. It should be remembered that the lack of a heartbeat, pulse, respiration and the reaction of pupils to light does not mean that the victim is dead.
Signs of death:
4 . Simultaneously with the provision of first aid, it is necessary to take measures to call an ambulance or transport the injured to a hospital. The ambulance call should not suspend the provision of first aid.
Reanimation of the victim. Resuscitation (revitalization) is the restoration of vital body functions, primarily respiration and blood circulation. Resuscitation is carried out in the absence of respiration and cardiac activity, or they are so depressed that they do not provide the minimum needs of the body.
The possibility of recovery is based on the fact that death never occurs immediately, it is always preceded by a transitional stage – a terminal state. .
The agony is characterized by darkened consciousness, a sharp disturbance of cardiac activity and a drop in blood pressure, respiratory distress, and lack of pulse. The skin of the affected person is cold, pale or bluish. After the agony, clinical death occurs, in which there are no major signs of life – breathing and heartbeat. It lasts 3 – 5 minutes. This time must be used for resuscitation.
A few minutes separating the state of clinical death from biological death do not leave time for conversations, vanity, reflections and expectations. Since a medical worker may not always be on the scene, every person should know the basic techniques of resuscitation and be able to use them correctly.
Procedure for resuscitation of the victim:
First provide restoration of the airway. To do this, the victim is placed on his back, check and clean the oral cavity from foreign bodies. If the airways are free, but breathing is absent, proceed to artificial ventilation of the lungs using the “mouth-to-mouth” or “mouth-to-nose” method
Artificial ventilation of the lungs using the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose method (artificial respiration):
The lack of a pulse in the carotid artery is evidence of cardiac and respiratory arrest and requires urgent cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Recovery of the heart. In order to restore the work of the heart, in many cases it may be sufficient to carry out a precordial stroke. To this end, the palm of one hand is placed on the lower third of the sternum and a short and sharp punch of the other hand is applied to it. Then re-check the presence of a pulse in the carotid artery and, in its absence, proceed to an external cardiac massage and mechanical ventilation.
External heart massage:
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